The frequency of cardiovascular complications in patients suffering from COVID-19
Keywords:COVID-19, cardiovascular complications, acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias
Background: Pandemic caused by Corona virus infection has damaged the population throughout the universe. Cases of COVID-19 increased rapidly in whole world. COVID-19 has been associated with a number of cardiovascular co-morbidities including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation and cardiac failure.
Aims and objective: To determine the frequency of cardiovascular complications in patients with COVID-19.
Material and methods: This observational cohort study was conducted in corona ward of DHQ Hospital, Gujrat from 1st January to 31st June 2021. Total 216 patients between 18-70 years of age, admitted who had COVID-19 confirmed by PCR after taking informed consent; patients already suffering from any cardiovascular, respiratory or other life threatening illness were excluded while hypertensive, diabetics and smoker were included in the study. Duration of admission was according to the severity of illness. Detailed history was taken from all patients followed by relevant examination. Investigations like ECG, echocardiographically and troponins were done to diagnose cardiovascular complications. All the patients were treated conservatively. Frequency of cardiovascular complications was noted. The patients who had clinical relief of symptoms, fever free, normal X-Ray chest and at least two consecutive negative PCR results for covid-19 were discharged. p value <0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: Out of two hundred sixteen patients, 30(14%) patients were diabetics and 21(10%) were hypertensive. Myocardial injury in 12% (myocarditis 4%, myocardial infarction 1%, raised troponins without myocarditis and ECG changes in 7% thromboembolism 1%, right ventricle dysfunction 5%, arrhythmias in 9%. Most of the patients had mild symptoms and recovered by conservative management. About 4-5% patients required invasive ventilatory support. Age, gender, diabetes, hypertension and previous cardiovascular co-morbidities increase the frequency of cardiovascular complications. Overall mortality was around 2%. p value was calculated as significant < 0.05.
Conclusion: COVID-19 is known for cardiovascular complications in which acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, right ventricle dysfunction are common. These complications are more common in those having cardiovascular disease (CVD) or other co-morbidities
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