Frequency of multi vessel coronary artery disease in diabetics Vs. non diabetics.
Keywords:Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Un-stable angina, Multi vessel disease, Non diabetic
OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of multi vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetes and non-diabetic patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was done at angiography ward, Punjab institute of Cardiology Lahore over duration of six months. Total 400 cases fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Participants were placed in two groups as per history of diabetes mellitus. Angiography of these patients was done and findings were noted.
Mean age of all the patients was 51.81±5.77 years. The age range of the patients was 40- 60 years. Mean age of males was 51.15±5.61 and that of females was 52.57±5.87 years . Males were 54% and females were 46% . There were 200(50%) diabetic patients while 200(50%) patients were non diabetic. There were 186(46.5%) smokers while 214(53.5%) were not smokers. Angiography findings show that among 241(60.25%) in which LAD was involved, in 209(52.25%) patients LCX was involved, RCA involvement was observed in 197(49.25%) patients, RAMUS involvement was observed in 33(8.25%) patients and LMS was observed in 159(39.75%) patients. Most of the patients were observed with LAD and LCX involvement as compared to other coronary arteries. In diabetic patients multi vessel disease was present in 101(50.5%) patients while the remaining 99(49.5%) patients did not have multi vessel disease. Among non diabetic patients multi vessel disease was present in 67(33.5%) patients while it was absent in 133(66.5%) patients.
CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor that contributes to development of coronary artery disease. Diabetics patients who presented with unstable angina they had more severe angiographically documented multi vessel disease as compared to non-diabetic patients i.e. (50.5% vs. 33.5%).