Health Communication methods for Increasing awareness and knowledge about Risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease“ A Randomized Community Intervention Trial”
Objective: To compare health communication methods to increase awareness and knowledge about risk factors of coronary artery disease and relate them to the different levels of knowledge using two different methods of communications.
Material and Methods: A randomized community intervention trial was conducted among the general population of age 30 – 45 years residing in LHW’s covered area of Gulberg town, union council 54 of Lahore. A pre-intervention survey comprising randomly selected 280 individuals was conducted by using a structured questionnaire for assessing knowledge. Random allocation was used to distribute the study subjects into two groups i.e. group A and group B. Intervention was done by individual approach in group A and by group approach in group B for increasing knowledge. Same health education message was given to both groups weekly for four consecutive weeks. A post-intervention survey was conducted after one month of intervention. The knowledge level variability was assessed between two different methods of health communications.
High level of knowledge was present in 33% in group A while it was present in 40 % of group B subjects. Between group A and group B, no statistical significant difference was noted in knowledge in pre-intervention period (p-value >0.05). However, 10% in group A and 14% in group B identified physical inactivity as a risk factor for heart disease. A statistical significant difference was noticed in pre-and post-intervention level of knowledge of both groups (p-value<0.05). Moreover, post intervention knowledge score of group A (individual approach), mean rank=162 was higher as compared to group B (group approach), mean rank=119 (p-value<0.05). The results of study had shown association of high level of knowledge with group A, age 40 years or above, education > matric, income >10,000, non-smoker, performing regular exercise, and having personal, family or household history of disease (adjusted odd ratio: 2.183, 1.419, 1.894, 1.099, 2.212, 1.224 1.3, 1.008 and 2.296 respectively).
Conclusions; The result of the study has demonstrated that there is low level of knowledge in general population. Health education interventions can effectively promote public health knowledge and the individual approach is the best method of health communication. Doctors, nurses and LHWs have ample opportunities for imparting health education by individual approach. HE programs thus should be collaborated with the LHW program. The study has also shown that patients and their attendants were more receptive. So, health education department should be established in hospitals. These strategies thus will help to reduce the burden of CHD.
Key words: Health Communication, Knowledge, Risk factors, CHD,
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