Health Communication methods for Increasing awareness and knowledge about Risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease“ A Randomized Community Intervention Trial”


  • Surya Fazal Hashmi Institute of Public Health, Lahore
  • Muhammad Zubair Jafar 1 University Plaza, Youngstown, Ohio, USA
  • Muhammad Jafar Saleem EPI dept. DGHS, Punjab
  • Farida Nasir Khan Institute of Public Health, Lahore
  • Anila Kanwal Institute of Public Health, Lahore
  • Khawar Abbas Chaudhry Continental Medical College, Lahore



Objective: To compare health communication methods to increase awareness and knowledge about risk factors of coronary artery disease and relate them to the different levels of knowledge using  two  different  methods  of  communications.

Material and Methods: A randomized community intervention trial was conducted among the general population of age 30 – 45 years residing in LHW’s covered area of  Gulberg town, union council 54 of Lahore. A pre-intervention survey comprising randomly selected 280 individuals was conducted by using a structured questionnaire for assessing knowledge. Random allocation  was used to distribute the study subjects into two groups i.e. group A and group B. Intervention was done by individual approach in group A and by group approach in group B for increasing knowledge. Same health education message was given to both groups weekly for four consecutive weeks. A post-intervention survey was conducted after one month of intervention. The knowledge level variability was assessed between two different methods of health communications.


 High level of knowledge was present in 33% in group A while it was present in 40 % of group B subjects. Between group A and group B, no statistical significant difference was noted in knowledge in pre-intervention period (p-value >0.05). However, 10% in group A and 14% in group B identified physical inactivity as a risk factor for heart disease. A  statistical significant difference was noticed in pre-and post-intervention level of knowledge of both groups (p-value<0.05). Moreover, post intervention knowledge score of group A (individual approach), mean rank=162 was higher as compared to group B (group approach), mean rank=119 (p-value<0.05). The results of study had shown association of high level of knowledge with group A, age 40 years or above, education > matric, income >10,000, non-smoker, performing regular exercise, and having personal, family or household history of disease (adjusted odd ratio: 2.183, 1.419, 1.894, 1.099, 2.212, 1.224 1.3, 1.008 and 2.296 respectively).

Conclusions; The result of the study has demonstrated that there is low level of knowledge in general population. Health education interventions can effectively promote public health knowledge and the individual approach is the best method of health communication. Doctors, nurses and LHWs have ample opportunities for imparting health education by individual approach. HE programs thus should be collaborated with the LHW program. The study has also shown that patients and their attendants were more receptive. So, health education department should be established in hospitals. These strategies thus will help to reduce the burden of CHD.

Key words: Health Communication, Knowledge, Risk factors, CHD,

Author Biographies

Surya Fazal Hashmi, Institute of Public Health, Lahore

Surya Fazal Hashmi


Assit. prof. dept of Health Education

Institute of Public Health, Lahore

E. mail

Contact no. 03314234051

Muhammad Zubair Jafar, 1 University Plaza, Youngstown, Ohio, USA

Muhammad Zubair Jafar

MBBS, MPH Student (USA)

MPH Student (Class of 2018)


Contact no. +1(929)277-7734


Muhammad Jafar Saleem, EPI dept. DGHS, Punjab

Muhmmad Jafar Saleem

MBBS, DHA, MSc (Hons)

Consultant Cold Chain Management,

EPI dept. DGHS, Punjab

E mail.

Contact no. 03334234793

Farida Nasir Khan, Institute of Public Health, Lahore

Farida Nasir Khan


Senior Demonstrator dept. of epidimiology

Institute of Public Health, Lahore

E mail.

Contact no. 03004205199


Anila Kanwal, Institute of Public Health, Lahore

Anila Kanwal

M.Sc. Psychology

Health educator,

Institute of Public Health, Lahore

Email: anila

Contact no. 03214300480


Khawar Abbas Chaudhry, Continental Medical College, Lahore

Khawar Abbas Chaudhry

Associate Professor,dept of medicine,

Continental Medical College, Lahore


Contact no.  03004409996



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