Frequency of goiter based thyroid dysfunction among patients of cardiovascular diseases


  • Bader Javed Omar Hospital and Cardiac Centre, Lahore
  • Arslan Ahmed Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore
  • Muhammad Usman Shalamar Institute of Health Sciences, Lahore
  • Sajjad Ahmad Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore
  • Shahzad Majeed Bhatti King Edward Medical University, Lahore
  • Afsheen Nigar King Edward Medical University, Lahore



Cardiovascular Diseases, Goiter Based Thyroid Dysfunction


Background: It has been consistently noted that overt hypothyroidism is linked to an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease. Myocardial infarction risk in women was shown to be independently increased by subclinical hypothyroidism. Elevated thyroid antibodies are the hallmark of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Therefore, a rise in thyroid antibodies alone may affect cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this research was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction attributable to goitres in people with cardiovascular illnesses.

Methodology: The research was carried out between October 25th, 2020 and April 25th, 2021 at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology in Lahore. In all, 150 heart disease patients were included. A sterile blood sample was drawn using a disposable syringe. The samples were then forwarded to the hospital laboratory where the TSH and T4 levels would be determined. The reports were evaluated, and the results were tallied. Operational definition was used to provide labels for overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism. The information was put into SPSS v25.0 for statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences between the subgroups with respect to goitre and thyroid dysfunction. All p-values below 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: Total 150 patients with cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in the study. Gender distribution showed that 95(63.3%) were males while 55(36.7%) were females. Among 150 patients with cardiovascular diseases, 29(19.3%) had goiter based thyroid dysfunction. Among patients with goiter based thyroid dysfunction, 9(6.0%) had overt hypothyroidism, 15(10.0%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 5(3.3%) had hyperthyroidism.

Conclusion: The presence of thyroid dysfunction must be regarded as a relatively widespread disorder, particularly among females. This condition has the potential to add to the total risk of coronary disease and may be treated by secondary preventative measures.

Author Biographies

Bader Javed, Omar Hospital and Cardiac Centre, Lahore


Arslan Ahmed, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

Senior Registrar Cardiology

Muhammad Usman, Shalamar Institute of Health Sciences, Lahore

Senior Registrar Cardiology

Sajjad Ahmad, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

Professor of Cardiology

Shahzad Majeed Bhatti, King Edward Medical University, Lahore

Assistant Professor of Cardiology

Afsheen Nigar, King Edward Medical University, Lahore

Post Graduate Resident 


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