Measuring Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) in male vs female suffering from acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) at PIC, Lahore


  • Kamran Dawood Ahmad Rehmatul lil Alameen Institute of Cardiology, Lahore
  • Khurram Shahzad Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore
  • Maryam Mansoor Al Aleem Medical College, Gulab Devi Educational Complex
  • Sadaf Naeem Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore
  • Samra Yasmin Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore
  • Sajjad Ahmad Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore



Primary PCI, Acute STEMI, MACE



Worldwide, Coronary Artery Diseases (CADs) cause significant disability and death. Primary PCI (PPCI) is the gold-standard of emergency care in management of patients suffering from STEMI. Gender-based differences may be present in the major cardiovascular outcomes (MACE) of PPCI.


This article aims at comparing major adverse cardiovascular outcomes male vs female STEMI patients going through PPCI.

Study design:

Descriptive case series

Study setting:

Emergency Department, Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC), Lahore.


With mean age just over 50.3 ± 9.7 years, 193 (78.8%) males and 52 (21.2%) female, a total of 245 patients were enrolled in the study. Risk factors included diabetes, hypertension, familial IHD and active smoking. We recorded in-hospital outcomes post-pPCI: mortality, cerebrovascular accident, acute and subacute stent thrombosis, heart failure, acute kidney injury and arrhythmias.


Post PPCI in-hospital outcomes in 193 males: mortality 0, heart failure 3 (1.6%), acute stent thrombosis 0 and acute kidney injury in 11 patients (5.7%). Among 52 females: mortality 2 (3.8%), heart failure 2 (3.8%), acute stent thrombosis 1 (1.9%) and acute kidney injury 3 (5.8%). The only significant association was found between female gender & post PPCI mortality after STEMI (P = 0.006).


Results of in-hospital complications among male & female patients following PPCI for acute STEMI seem to show association of female gender with post-PPCI mortality which is significantly greater than the male population under study.

Author Biographies

Khurram Shahzad, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

Assistant Professor of Cardiology

Maryam Mansoor, Al Aleem Medical College, Gulab Devi Educational Complex

Assistant Professor Pharmacology

Sadaf Naeem, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

Senior Registrar Cardiology

Samra Yasmin, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

Assistant Professor of Cardiology

Sajjad Ahmad, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

Professor of Cardiology


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